In our institutional context, the ampersand is mainly found in the formal names of firms or businesses, where it should not be replaced with the word and. The ampersand, and not the plus sign, should be used to abbreviate the phrase research and development.

Small_OK Is today’s R&D model failing to meet the needs of developing countries?

This guide recommends not using the ampersand as a substitute for the word and, as this use is generally a feature of informal writing.

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