Use quotation marks, also called inverted commas, to indicate direct quotations and definitions.

Small_OK Before bestowing the award the Rector said, Dr Robinson’s efforts to oppose discrimination place him among the few who actually deserve such an honour.
Small_OK According to this dictionary, a methodology is a body of methods, rules and postulates employed by a discipline.

Always use double marks for a quotation and single marks for a quotation within a quotation.

Small_OK His office door is very unusual; it has Welcome written all over it in over thirty different languages.

Punctuation should be placed according to the meaning: if it belongs to the quotation, it is quoted; otherwise, it is not.

Small_OK According to the Dean, The need for structural change is paramount.”
Small_OK The Dean declared that the need for structural change was paramount.

Quotations of over four lines in length should be set off from the text as a block quotation, not enclosed in quotation marks, and single-spaced. Quoted matter within the block quotation is set off with double quotation marks; quotations within these quotations, with single quotation marks, and so on.

Single quotation marks can also help show the reader that a word or term is used in an unusual, colloquial or ironic way.

Small_OK Nature somehow ‘knows’ the best environmental course to take.
Small_OK The students felt ‘ripped off’ by the lecturer’s decision to hold the exam a week earlier than scheduled.
Small_OK That lecturer is famous for sharing her ‘wisdom’ with her students.

However, if you overuse quotation marks in these ways, they lose their effect.

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